Risk factors for dementia diagnosis
The July International Psychogeriatrics Article of the Month is entitled “Risk factors for dementia diagnosis in German primary care practices” by Anke Booker, Louis EC Jacob, Michael Rapp, Jens Bohlken and Karel Kostev. This blog piece was written for us by one of the paper’s authors, Karel Kostev.
A number of factors are associated with the risk of developing dementia, for example, it is well known that the risk of developing this disease is higher in the elderly. Several previous works were controversial and partly focused on a low number of patients. We analyzed the association of different potential risk factors with the risk of developing dementia in German primary care practices.
Based on the large database with electronic medical records we selected 11,956 patients with an initial diagnosis of dementia between January 2010 and December 2014. To have a comparison group, 11,956 controls without dementia were also included and were matched with cases on the basis of age, sex, type of health insurance and physician.
For each patient we selected several disorders potentially associated with dementia based on primary care diagnoses. We used a multivariate regression model and could see that the risk of dementia increased significantly in connection with the following variables: diabetes, lipid metabolism, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, intracranial injury, coronary heart disease, mild cognitive impairment, and mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use. Conversely, the risk of dementia decreased with the use of statins, proton-pump inhibitors and antihypertensive drugs.
What are the main strengths of the study? We analyzed the ‘real life’ data from the clinical practice including all possible high risk patients who would be excluded from clinical trials. Further strengths are the high number of patients and the number of primary diagnoses included in the statistical analysis.
Many of these factors are already known so why is this research important? We analyzed patients who visited primary care physicians. The study results clearly highlighted the importance of personalized follow-up by the physicians on patients not only with high risk diagnoses for dementia like mild cognitive impairment but also diabetes or cardiovascular diseases to try to prevent or delay dementia.